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International > International Organization for Standardization

ISO 704:2009 Terminology work -- Principles and methods



AD ID

0002819

AD STATUS

ISO 704:2009 Terminology work -- Principles and methods

ORIGINATOR

International Organization for Standardization

TYPE

International or National Standard

AVAILABILITY

For Purchase

SYNONYMS

ISO 704:2009

ISO 704:2009 Terminology work -- Principles and methods

EFFECTIVE

Not Defined

ADDED

The document as a whole was last reviewed and released on 2018-03-23T00:00:00-0700.

AD ID

0002819

AD STATUS

For Purchase

ORIGINATOR

International Organization for Standardization

TYPE

International or National Standard

AVAILABILITY

SYNONYMS

ISO 704:2009

ISO 704:2009 Terminology work -- Principles and methods

EFFECTIVE

Not Defined

ADDED

The document as a whole was last reviewed and released on 2018-03-23T00:00:00-0700.


Important Notice

This Authority Document In Depth Report is copyrighted - © 2024 - Network Frontiers LLC. All rights reserved. Copyright in the Authority Document analyzed herein is held by its authors. Network Frontiers makes no claims of copyright in this Authority Document.

This Authority Document In Depth Report is provided for informational purposes only and does not constitute, and should not be construed as, legal advice. The reader is encouraged to consult with an attorney experienced in these areas for further explanation and advice.

This Authority Document In Depth Report provides analysis and guidance for use and implementation of the Authority Document but it is not a substitute for the original authority document itself. Readers should refer to the original authority document as the definitive resource on obligations and compliance requirements.

The process we used to tag and map this document

This document has been mapped into the Unified Compliance Framework using a patented methodology and patented tools (you can research our patents HERE). The mapping team has taken every effort to ensure the quality of mapping is of the highest degree. To learn more about the process we use to map Authority Documents, or to become involved in that process, click HERE.

Controls and asociated Citations breakdown

When the UCF Mapping Teams tag Citations and their associated mandates within an Authority Document, those Citations and Mandates are tied to Common Controls. In addition, and by virtue of those Citations and mandates being tied to Common Controls, there are three sets of meta data that are associated with each Citation; Controls by Impact Zone, Controls by Type, and Controls by Classification.

The online version of the mapping analysis you see here is just a fraction of the work the UCF Mapping Team has done. The downloadable version of this document, available within the Common Controls Hub (available HERE) contains the following:

Document implementation analysis – statistics about the document’s alignment with Common Controls as compared to other Authority Documents and statistics on usage of key terms and non-standard terms.

Citation and Mandate Tagging and Mapping – A complete listing of each and every Citation we found within ISO 704:2009 Terminology work -- Principles and methods that have been tagged with their primary and secondary nouns and primary and secondary verbs in three column format. The first column shows the Citation (the marker within the Authority Document that points to where we found the guidance). The second column shows the Citation guidance per se, along with the tagging for the mandate we found within the Citation. The third column shows the Common Control ID that the mandate is linked to, and the final column gives us the Common Control itself.

Dictionary Terms – The dictionary terms listed for ISO 704:2009 Terminology work -- Principles and methods are based upon terms either found within the Authority Document’s defined terms section(which most legal documents have), its glossary, and for the most part, as tagged within each mandate. The terms with links are terms that are the standardized version of the term.



Common Controls and
mandates by Impact Zone
84 Mandated Controls - bold    
10 Implied Controls - italic     26 Implementation

An Impact Zone is a hierarchical way of organizing our suite of Common Controls — it is a taxonomy. The top levels of the UCF hierarchy are called Impact Zones. Common Controls are mapped within the UCF’s Impact Zones and are maintained in a legal hierarchy within that Impact Zone. Each Impact Zone deals with a separate area of policies, standards, and procedures: technology acquisition, physical security, continuity, records management, etc.


The UCF created its taxonomy by looking at the corpus of standards and regulations through the lens of unification and a view toward how the controls impact the organization. Thus, we created a hierarchical structure for each impact zone that takes into account regulatory and standards bodies, doctrines, and language.

Number of Controls
120 Total
  • Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style
    108
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular TYPE CLASS
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style CC ID 06095 IT Impact Zone IT Impact Zone
    Establish, implement, and maintain terminological resources. CC ID 13317 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Analyze Authority Documents for their content. CC ID 13322
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Investigate Detective
    Analyze concepts within the framework of their subject field. CC ID 13373
    [In organizing concepts into a concept system, it is necessary to bear in mind the subject field that gave rise to the concept and to consider the expectations and objectives of the target users. The subject field shall act as the framework within which the concept field, the set of thematically related but unstructured concepts, is established. § 5.5.1 ¶ 2]
    Investigate Detective
    Compile a list of all of the terms in the subject field. CC ID 13385
    [[compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Analyze concept fields for their partitive relationships. CC ID 13330
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Investigate Preventive
    Analyze concept fields for hierarchical structure. CC ID 13369
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Investigate Detective
    Analyze concept fields for associative relationships. CC ID 13371
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Investigate Detective
    Analyze concept fields for their generic relationships. CC ID 13342
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Investigate Detective
    Select and define the concept field. CC ID 13382
    [[compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Use the concept field to develop the concept system. CC ID 13361
    [A concept field is a set of unstructured but thematically related concepts that shall be used as the starting point for developing a concept system. A concept system is an abstract system that the terminologist extracts from the concept field. Many different techniques are used to produce concept diagrams. Modelling techniques, especially object modelling programs, are used to such an extent that it has become conventional to speak of modelling concept systems rather than developing them. § 5.6.3 ¶ 1]
    Investigate Detective
    Establish and maintain concept systems, as necessary. CC ID 13320 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Subdivide hypernyms according to criterion of subdivisions in the concept system. CC ID 13374
    [[superordinate concept] In a hierarchical relation, concepts are organized into levels of superordinate  and subordinate concepts . For there to be a hierarchy, there must be at least one subordinate concept below a superordinate concept . Superordinate concepts can be subdivided according to more than one criterion of subdivision (i.e. they can be viewed from more than one dimension), in which case the resulting concept system  is said to be multidimensional. Subordinate concepts at the same level and resulting from the application of the same criterion of subdivision are called coordinate concepts . Concepts are superordinate, subordinate or coordinate, not on their own, but always in relation to each other in a hierarchy. § 5.5.2.1 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Define objects as anything perceived or conceived. CC ID 13321
    [In terminology work, an object is defined as anything perceived or conceived. Some objects, such as a machine, a diamond, or a river, should be considered concrete or material; others, such as each manifestation of financial planning, gravity, fluidity, or a conversion ratio, should be considered immaterial or abstract; still others, for example, a unicorn, a philosopher's stone or a literary character should be considered purely imaginary. In the course of producing a terminology, philosophical discussions on whether an object actually exists in reality are unproductive and should be avoided. Attention should be focused on how one deals with objects for the purposes of communication. § 4 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Identify the properties of each object. CC ID 13325
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1
    Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Identify the properties attributed to objects in the subject field. CC ID 13338
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Assign properties to objects. CC ID 13341
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Determine which properties of an object should be abstracted into characteristics. CC ID 13363
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Investigate Detective
    Group objects that share the same properties into categories. CC ID 13326
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Establish and maintain concepts. CC ID 13339
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Enumerate subordinate concepts, as necessary. CC ID 16242 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Extract objects as concepts. CC ID 13358
    [Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Investigate Detective
    Extract the properties of the object to define the characteristics of the concept. CC ID 13359
    [Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Investigate Detective
    Categorize objects into classes of concepts. CC ID 13323
    [In communication, not every individual object in the world is differentiated and named. Instead, through observation and a process of abstraction called conceptualization, objects are categorized into classes, which correspond to units of knowledge called concepts, which are represented in various forms of communication (object → concept → communication). This International Standard does not deal with all concepts represented in language but only with those represented by the terminology of specialized fields. For terminology work, concepts shall be considered mental representations of objects within a specialized context or field. § 5.1 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Combine the characteristics of objects to form a concept. CC ID 13365
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Investigate Detective
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts. CC ID 13334
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Categorize characteristics according to their importance. CC ID 16229 Process or Activity Preventive
    Consider the expectations and objectives of the target audience when organizing concepts. CC ID 13329
    [In organizing concepts into a concept system, it is necessary to bear in mind the subject field that gave rise to the concept and to consider the expectations and objectives of the target users. The subject field shall act as the framework within which the concept field, the set of thematically related but unstructured concepts, is established. § 5.5.1 ¶ 2
    When providing information about concepts, it is important to take into consideration the needs of the intended audience: a) specialists in the subject field in question, already familiar with the subject field's conceptualization patterns and who may have already encountered the terms; b) specialists in another subject field who may or may not be familiar with the terms and the concepts; or, c) non-specialists unfamiliar with both the terms and the concepts of the subject field. § 6.1 ¶ 5
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Identify the context or subject field of the concept. CC ID 13337
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Identify concepts by their characteristics. CC ID 13324
    [Concepts are described and identified by their characteristics. § 5.1 ¶ 5]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Compare the characteristics of related concepts by the intention of the concept. CC ID 13336
    [[adjust, refine] Comparing the characteristics of a concept and its related concepts (i.e. generic, coordinate and specific) may require an adjustment and refinement of the intension. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 6]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts in relation to the concept system found within the subject field. CC ID 13372
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Investigate Detective
    Identify the characteristics that constitute the intension of the concept. CC ID 13345
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    List characteristics that delimit specific concepts from the generic concept. CC ID 13344
    [When documenting characteristics  associated with concepts, instead of listing inherited characteristics  redundantly for subordinate concepts, they shall be listed only with the generic concept. Under the specific concept, it is possible simply to list only the additional characteristic(s ) that delimits the specific concept  from its generic concept  and/or from its fellow coordinate concepts. Inherited characteristics  can be obtained at the level above in the concept system. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 5]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Analyze the similarities and differences of concepts. CC ID 13370
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Investigate Detective
    Identify partitive concepts. CC ID 13335
    [To identify partitive concepts and their characteristics, it is necessary to determine first the position of the comprehensive concept in a generic hierarchy and to be mindful of the inheritance principle. How generic the comprehensive concept is will determine its partitive concepts and the extension of those concepts. § 5.5.2.3.1 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Determine the position of the hypernym in the hierarchical relationship by means of the inheritance principle. CC ID 13362
    [To identify partitive concepts and their characteristics, it is necessary to determine first the position of the comprehensive concept in a generic hierarchy and to be mindful of the inheritance principle. How generic the comprehensive concept is will determine its partitive concepts and the extension of those concepts. § 5.5.2.3.1 ¶ 3
    An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Investigate Detective
    Determine the hypernym's relationship to partitive concepts, as necessary. CC ID 13404
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Investigate Detective
    Document characteristics associated with concepts. CC ID 13343
    [When documenting characteristics  associated with concepts, instead of listing inherited characteristics  redundantly for subordinate concepts, they shall be listed only with the generic concept. Under the specific concept, it is possible simply to list only the additional characteristic(s ) that delimits the specific concept  from its generic concept  and/or from its fellow coordinate concepts. Inherited characteristics  can be obtained at the level above in the concept system. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 5]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Combine the characteristics of objects when creating or updating concepts. CC ID 13327
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Establish and maintain definitions for concepts. CC ID 13360
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Organize concepts into hierarchical relationships. CC ID 13379
    [[superordinate concept] In a hierarchical relation, concepts are organized into levels of superordinate  and subordinate concepts . For there to be a hierarchy, there must be at least one subordinate concept below a superordinate concept . Superordinate concepts can be subdivided according to more than one criterion of subdivision (i.e. they can be viewed from more than one dimension), in which case the resulting concept system  is said to be multidimensional. Subordinate concepts at the same level and resulting from the application of the same criterion of subdivision are called coordinate concepts . Concepts are superordinate, subordinate or coordinate, not on their own, but always in relation to each other in a hierarchy. § 5.5.2.1 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Define the criterion of subdivisions in the concept system. CC ID 16230 Process or Activity Preventive
    Define the hypernym concepts prior to defining the hyponym concepts in a concept system. CC ID 13413
    [When modelling the concept system and formulating the corresponding system of definitions, it is essential to determine which concepts are so basic and familiar that they need not be defined. Superordinate concepts should be defined before defining their subordinate concepts. When drafting a new definition, the concepts used in the definition should have definitions either in the same terminological resource or in other resources, including general language dictionaries. § 6.3.5 ¶ 10]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Use the relationships between concepts to determine the structure of the concept system. CC ID 13368
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Investigate Detective
    Apply the characteristics of concepts when modelling concept systems. CC ID 13355
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Investigate Detective
    Illustrate the structure of the concept system, as necessary. CC ID 13364
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Establish and maintain terminological entries and their definitions. CC ID 13318 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Standardize and harmonize terms in terminological entries. CC ID 13389
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include terminological entries that are drawn from existing dictionaries, as necessary. CC ID 13387
    [A terminology shall include lexical units that are adequately defined in general language dictionaries only when these lexical units are used to designate concepts that form part of the concept system. These dictionaries shall be cited as references for the lexical units. § 6.1 ¶ 4
    Before drafting an intensional definition for a given concept, it is necessary to determine the relations between the concept and its related concepts and to model a concept system within which the concept is situated. If a definition already exists, in an International Standard for example, it should be adopted as it stands only if the information in the definition is consistent with that of the other concepts in the concept system, thereby allowing the concept in question to be incorporated into the concept system. Otherwise, it should be adapted. § 6.3.5 ¶ 9
    When modelling the concept system and formulating the corresponding system of definitions, it is essential to determine which concepts are so basic and familiar that they need not be defined. Superordinate concepts should be defined before defining their subordinate concepts. When drafting a new definition, the concepts used in the definition should have definitions either in the same terminological resource or in other resources, including general language dictionaries. § 6.3.5 ¶ 10]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from changing the extensions of concepts when adapting existing definitions. CC ID 13417
    [In adapting an existing definition to a specific subject field or context, care should be taken not to change the extension of the concept. A change to the extension leads to a new concept. Similarly, changes to any of the characteristics in a definition result in a new concept. § 6.5.3 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Cite external dictionary references, if they are used. CC ID 13388
    [A terminology shall include lexical units that are adequately defined in general language dictionaries only when these lexical units are used to designate concepts that form part of the concept system. These dictionaries shall be cited as references for the lexical units. § 6.1 ¶ 4]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Avoid errors when citing authoritative sources. CC ID 16238 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Establish and maintain designations for terminological entries, as necessary. CC ID 13340
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Treat full forms as designations. CC ID 16236 Process or Activity Preventive
    Use the characteristics of the concept to select the designation. CC ID 13357
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Investigate Detective
    Standardize and harmonize term designations. CC ID 13390
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Document the history of designations. CC ID 16249 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Consider the needs of the target audience when creating designations. CC ID 16275 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Craft the designation to reflect the concept system. CC ID 16237 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from changing designations unless absolutely necessary. CC ID 16247 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Separate designations from definitions. CC ID 13328
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Define the concept of a term as the noun with the subject being the term's designation. CC ID 13402
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Treat abbreviations as designations. CC ID 13332
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Indicate that a terminological entry is a preferred term, non-standard term, or deprecated term, as necessary. CC ID 13412
    [{preferred term, admitted term} One primary function of a standardized terminology shall be to indicate preferred, admitted, and deprecated terms. A term recommended by a technical committee shall be considered a preferred term whereas an admitted term shall represent an acceptable synonym for a preferred term. Deprecated terms are terms that have been rejected. § 7.2.6 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Establish and maintain definitions for terminological entries. CC ID 13319 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Limit term definitions to a single concept. CC ID 13395
    [A definition shall describe only one concept. It shall not include hidden definitions of other concepts, e.g. concepts denoting characteristics. Any characteristic that requires an explanation shall be defined separately as a separate concept in a separate entry or given in a note. § 6.3.5 ¶ 12
    A definition shall describe the content of the concept precisely. It should be neither too narrow nor too broad. Otherwise, the definition is considered inaccurate. Non-delimiting or irrelevant characteristics in the definition may result in an extension where objects are unintentionally included or excluded. A definition is considered too broad if the characteristics selected to describe the concept allow for objects that should not be part of the extension. A definition is considered too narrow if the characteristics selected exclude objects that should be part of the extension. The subject field and source indicated in the terminological entry should also be considered when assessing whether a definition is too broad or too narrow. § 6.5.3 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Use definition types that fit the purpose of the term definition. CC ID 13422 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Create intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13381 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Begin adjectival designations of intensional definitions with the state or the function of the object. CC ID 13399
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Begin verbal designations of intensional definitions with a verb. CC ID 13398
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Begin nominal designations of intensional definitions with a noun. CC ID 13397
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include representations in intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13383
    [An intensional definition based on a generic relation shall represent the concept by stating the generic concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristics that differentiate the given concept from coordinate concepts in a generic concept system. By stating the generic concept, the characteristics that make up the intension of the superordinate concept are implicitly assumed in the definition on account of the inheritance principle. An intensional definition may be supplemented by further information or a representation in other media (e.g. graphic illustration or sound clip). § 6.3.5 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include hypernyms, followed by the term's delimiting characteristics in intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13386
    [Intensional definitions shall include the superordinate concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristic(s). The superordinate concept situates the concept in its proper context in the concept system (i.e. ‘mice’ among ‘pointing devices’, ‘trees’ among ‘plants’). In practice, intensional definitions are preferable to other types of definitions and should be used whenever possible as they most clearly reveal the characteristics of a concept within a concept system. § 6.2 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include the concept, followed by the term's delimiting characteristics, in an intensional definition, as necessary. CC ID 13380
    [An intensional definition based on a generic relation shall represent the concept by stating the generic concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristics that differentiate the given concept from coordinate concepts in a generic concept system. By stating the generic concept, the characteristics that make up the intension of the superordinate concept are implicitly assumed in the definition on account of the inheritance principle. An intensional definition may be supplemented by further information or a representation in other media (e.g. graphic illustration or sound clip). § 6.3.5 ¶ 3
    A definition shall reflect the concept system describing the concept and its relations to other concepts in the concept system. Definitions shall be systemic in order to enable a terminologist to reconstruct the concept system. The characteristics selected in an intensional definition shall indicate the delimitation that distinguishes one concept from another or the connection between the concepts. § 6.3.2 ¶ 1
    The role of an intensional definition is to provide the minimum amount of information that forms the basis for abstraction and that allows one to recognize and differentiate the concept from other related concepts, especially coordinate concepts. An intensional definition shall define the concept as a unit with an unambiguous intension reflected by a unique extension. The unique combination of characteristics creating the intension shall identify the concept and differentiate it from other concepts. § 6.2 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Create partitive definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13392 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Limit partitive definitions to either the concept's hypernym or hyponym, but not both. CC ID 13416
    [To avoid circularity, defining concepts on the basis of a partitive analysis shall be restricted to one level, either the subordinate level or the superordinate level, not both. § 6.5.2 ¶ 5]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Define term definitions as partitive concepts if it constitutes a portion of a comprehensive concept. CC ID 13406
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Begin partitive definitions with formulations that indicate the partitive relationship. CC ID 13405
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Standardize term definitions. CC ID 13391
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Use formulas as definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13333
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3
    A formula used to define a scientific or mathematical quantity can be considered an intensional definition based on a partitive relation whenever the relationship between the parts is indicated § 6.3.5 ¶ 6]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Use proper names as unique identifiers, as necessary. CC ID 16254 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include synonyms and antonyms of the term in the term definition. CC ID 13420 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include the subject field in a term definition if it is not indicated in the term's designation, as necessary. CC ID 13394
    [The extension and the intension reflected in a definition shall be appropriate to the concept system in a given subject field. If the specific subject field is not clearly indicated in the designation, in the document title or is not generally understood, it shall be placed before the definition on the same line. In a terminology database, there is usually a separate field for storing the denomination of the subject field. § 6.3.3 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include examples that contrast the characteristics of a term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13423 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include adjectives that form a part of the term in the term's definition, as necessary. CC ID 13426
    [Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from including hidden definitions not specific to the concept in the term definition. CC ID 13396
    [A definition shall describe only one concept. It shall not include hidden definitions of other concepts, e.g. concepts denoting characteristics. Any characteristic that requires an explanation shall be defined separately as a separate concept in a separate entry or given in a note. § 6.3.5 ¶ 12]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Use plain language when writing term definitions. CC ID 13419 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Begin term definitions with the concept associated with the hypernym, as necessary. CC ID 13408
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from including characteristics to hypernyms that belong to the term's hyponym. CC ID 13415
    [{superordinate concept} The definition shall not contain characteristics that belong logically to superordinate or subordinate concepts. § 6.3.5 ¶ 13]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from describing the designation in the term definition. CC ID 13411
    [An intensional definition shall describe a concept, not the words or elements that make up a designation. § 6.3.5 ¶ 8
    Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3
    Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Define the concept as the noun and the rest of the definition will complete the predicate of the term definition. CC ID 13403
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include additional information not suited to a term's definition in the terminological entry's note. CC ID 13414
    [Ideally, definitions should be as concise as possible and as complex as necessary. Complex definitions shall contain only information that makes the concept unique; any additional descriptive information deemed necessary is to be included in a note. Definitions should be drafted in a consistent manner bearing in mind the target audience's language register and knowledge level. § 6.3.5 ¶ 11]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include the history of the term in the term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13425 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Limit the term's definition to a concept based within the appropriate concept system. CC ID 13407
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include the characteristics that constitute the intension of the concept in the term definition. CC ID 13409
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from using synonyms of the term in its definition. CC ID 13331
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from including meronyms in the term definition. CC ID 16245 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Refrain from repeating a designation to introduce a definition. CC ID 16243 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Determine the properties of terms that can be abstracted as characteristics. CC ID 13367
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Investigate Detective
    Combine terms with definitions to form a complete sentence in a term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13401
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Craft the definition to reflect the concept system in which the term is found. CC ID 13384
    [A definition shall reflect the concept system describing the concept and its relations to other concepts in the concept system. Definitions shall be systemic in order to enable a terminologist to reconstruct the concept system. The characteristics selected in an intensional definition shall indicate the delimitation that distinguishes one concept from another or the connection between the concepts. § 6.3.2 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts included in the term's definition. CC ID 13366
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Investigate Detective
    Use the characteristics of the concept when formulating a definition. CC ID 13356
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Investigate Detective
    Include any hypernyms' characteristics that indicate its hierarchical relationship to the concept system in the term definition. CC ID 13410
    [A concept may be defined based on the associative relation established between two concepts. The definition shall state the superordinate concept followed by characteristics that indicate the relationship between the concepts in question. It should be noted that, in many cases, the superordinate concept is not specific to the specialized subject field and, therefore, care should be taken to ensure that the complete intension and extension of the concept have been analysed thoroughly before defining the concept based on an associative relation. § 6.3.5 ¶ 7]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Review term definitions before finalizing them. CC ID 13421 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Test the validity of a term definition using the substitution principle. CC ID 13400
    [The substitution principle shall be used to test the validity of a definition. In the case of an intensional definition, it is valid if it can replace a designation in discourse without loss of or change in meaning. § 6.3.4 ¶ 1]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Deprecate flawed terminological entries, as necessary. CC ID 13393
    [Terms are rejected or deprecated for a number of reasons. A term may be a synonym for the preferred term but is deprecated in the interests of monosemy. A term may be flawed or inaccurate. § 7.2.6 ¶ 3]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Corrective
  • Operational management
    12
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular TYPE CLASS
    Operational management CC ID 00805 IT Impact Zone IT Impact Zone
    Document the organization's local environments. CC ID 06726
    [The intensional definition is a concise statement of what the concept is. It states the superordinate concept to concept expressed by the designation and its delimiting characteristics, and it shall be based on the concept relations determined during analysis. § 6.3.5 ¶ 2]
    Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Establish, implement, and maintain local environment security profiles. CC ID 07037 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include individuals assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07038 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include security requirements in the local environment security profile. CC ID 15717 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include the business processes assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07039 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include the technology used in the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07040 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include contact information for critical personnel assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07041 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include facility information for the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07042 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Include facility access information for the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 11773 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
    Disseminate and communicate the local environment security profile to interested personnel and affected parties. CC ID 15716 Communicate Preventive
    Update the local environment security profile, as necessary. CC ID 07043 Establish/Maintain Documentation Preventive
Common Controls and
mandates by Type
84 Mandated Controls - bold    
10 Implied Controls - italic     26 Implementation

Each Common Control is assigned a meta-data type to help you determine the objective of the Control and associated Authority Document mandates aligned with it. These types include behavioral controls, process controls, records management, technical security, configuration management, etc. They are provided as another tool to dissect the Authority Document’s mandates and assign them effectively within your organization.

Number of Controls
120 Total
  • Communicate
    1
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE CLASS
    Disseminate and communicate the local environment security profile to interested personnel and affected parties. CC ID 15716 Operational management Preventive
  • Establish/Maintain Documentation
    93
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE CLASS
    Document the organization's local environments. CC ID 06726
    [The intensional definition is a concise statement of what the concept is. It states the superordinate concept to concept expressed by the designation and its delimiting characteristics, and it shall be based on the concept relations determined during analysis. § 6.3.5 ¶ 2]
    Operational management Preventive
    Establish, implement, and maintain local environment security profiles. CC ID 07037 Operational management Preventive
    Include individuals assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07038 Operational management Preventive
    Include security requirements in the local environment security profile. CC ID 15717 Operational management Preventive
    Include the business processes assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07039 Operational management Preventive
    Include the technology used in the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07040 Operational management Preventive
    Include contact information for critical personnel assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07041 Operational management Preventive
    Include facility information for the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07042 Operational management Preventive
    Include facility access information for the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 11773 Operational management Preventive
    Update the local environment security profile, as necessary. CC ID 07043 Operational management Preventive
    Establish, implement, and maintain terminological resources. CC ID 13317 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Compile a list of all of the terms in the subject field. CC ID 13385
    [[compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Select and define the concept field. CC ID 13382
    [[compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Establish and maintain concept systems, as necessary. CC ID 13320 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Subdivide hypernyms according to criterion of subdivisions in the concept system. CC ID 13374
    [[superordinate concept] In a hierarchical relation, concepts are organized into levels of superordinate  and subordinate concepts . For there to be a hierarchy, there must be at least one subordinate concept below a superordinate concept . Superordinate concepts can be subdivided according to more than one criterion of subdivision (i.e. they can be viewed from more than one dimension), in which case the resulting concept system  is said to be multidimensional. Subordinate concepts at the same level and resulting from the application of the same criterion of subdivision are called coordinate concepts . Concepts are superordinate, subordinate or coordinate, not on their own, but always in relation to each other in a hierarchy. § 5.5.2.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Define objects as anything perceived or conceived. CC ID 13321
    [In terminology work, an object is defined as anything perceived or conceived. Some objects, such as a machine, a diamond, or a river, should be considered concrete or material; others, such as each manifestation of financial planning, gravity, fluidity, or a conversion ratio, should be considered immaterial or abstract; still others, for example, a unicorn, a philosopher's stone or a literary character should be considered purely imaginary. In the course of producing a terminology, philosophical discussions on whether an object actually exists in reality are unproductive and should be avoided. Attention should be focused on how one deals with objects for the purposes of communication. § 4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Identify the properties of each object. CC ID 13325
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1
    Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Identify the properties attributed to objects in the subject field. CC ID 13338
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Assign properties to objects. CC ID 13341
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Group objects that share the same properties into categories. CC ID 13326
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Establish and maintain concepts. CC ID 13339
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Enumerate subordinate concepts, as necessary. CC ID 16242 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Categorize objects into classes of concepts. CC ID 13323
    [In communication, not every individual object in the world is differentiated and named. Instead, through observation and a process of abstraction called conceptualization, objects are categorized into classes, which correspond to units of knowledge called concepts, which are represented in various forms of communication (object → concept → communication). This International Standard does not deal with all concepts represented in language but only with those represented by the terminology of specialized fields. For terminology work, concepts shall be considered mental representations of objects within a specialized context or field. § 5.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts. CC ID 13334
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Consider the expectations and objectives of the target audience when organizing concepts. CC ID 13329
    [In organizing concepts into a concept system, it is necessary to bear in mind the subject field that gave rise to the concept and to consider the expectations and objectives of the target users. The subject field shall act as the framework within which the concept field, the set of thematically related but unstructured concepts, is established. § 5.5.1 ¶ 2
    When providing information about concepts, it is important to take into consideration the needs of the intended audience: a) specialists in the subject field in question, already familiar with the subject field's conceptualization patterns and who may have already encountered the terms; b) specialists in another subject field who may or may not be familiar with the terms and the concepts; or, c) non-specialists unfamiliar with both the terms and the concepts of the subject field. § 6.1 ¶ 5
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Identify the context or subject field of the concept. CC ID 13337
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Identify concepts by their characteristics. CC ID 13324
    [Concepts are described and identified by their characteristics. § 5.1 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Compare the characteristics of related concepts by the intention of the concept. CC ID 13336
    [[adjust, refine] Comparing the characteristics of a concept and its related concepts (i.e. generic, coordinate and specific) may require an adjustment and refinement of the intension. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 6]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Identify the characteristics that constitute the intension of the concept. CC ID 13345
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    List characteristics that delimit specific concepts from the generic concept. CC ID 13344
    [When documenting characteristics  associated with concepts, instead of listing inherited characteristics  redundantly for subordinate concepts, they shall be listed only with the generic concept. Under the specific concept, it is possible simply to list only the additional characteristic(s ) that delimits the specific concept  from its generic concept  and/or from its fellow coordinate concepts. Inherited characteristics  can be obtained at the level above in the concept system. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Identify partitive concepts. CC ID 13335
    [To identify partitive concepts and their characteristics, it is necessary to determine first the position of the comprehensive concept in a generic hierarchy and to be mindful of the inheritance principle. How generic the comprehensive concept is will determine its partitive concepts and the extension of those concepts. § 5.5.2.3.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Document characteristics associated with concepts. CC ID 13343
    [When documenting characteristics  associated with concepts, instead of listing inherited characteristics  redundantly for subordinate concepts, they shall be listed only with the generic concept. Under the specific concept, it is possible simply to list only the additional characteristic(s ) that delimits the specific concept  from its generic concept  and/or from its fellow coordinate concepts. Inherited characteristics  can be obtained at the level above in the concept system. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Combine the characteristics of objects when creating or updating concepts. CC ID 13327
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Establish and maintain definitions for concepts. CC ID 13360
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Organize concepts into hierarchical relationships. CC ID 13379
    [[superordinate concept] In a hierarchical relation, concepts are organized into levels of superordinate  and subordinate concepts . For there to be a hierarchy, there must be at least one subordinate concept below a superordinate concept . Superordinate concepts can be subdivided according to more than one criterion of subdivision (i.e. they can be viewed from more than one dimension), in which case the resulting concept system  is said to be multidimensional. Subordinate concepts at the same level and resulting from the application of the same criterion of subdivision are called coordinate concepts . Concepts are superordinate, subordinate or coordinate, not on their own, but always in relation to each other in a hierarchy. § 5.5.2.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Define the hypernym concepts prior to defining the hyponym concepts in a concept system. CC ID 13413
    [When modelling the concept system and formulating the corresponding system of definitions, it is essential to determine which concepts are so basic and familiar that they need not be defined. Superordinate concepts should be defined before defining their subordinate concepts. When drafting a new definition, the concepts used in the definition should have definitions either in the same terminological resource or in other resources, including general language dictionaries. § 6.3.5 ¶ 10]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Illustrate the structure of the concept system, as necessary. CC ID 13364
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Establish and maintain terminological entries and their definitions. CC ID 13318 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Standardize and harmonize terms in terminological entries. CC ID 13389
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include terminological entries that are drawn from existing dictionaries, as necessary. CC ID 13387
    [A terminology shall include lexical units that are adequately defined in general language dictionaries only when these lexical units are used to designate concepts that form part of the concept system. These dictionaries shall be cited as references for the lexical units. § 6.1 ¶ 4
    Before drafting an intensional definition for a given concept, it is necessary to determine the relations between the concept and its related concepts and to model a concept system within which the concept is situated. If a definition already exists, in an International Standard for example, it should be adopted as it stands only if the information in the definition is consistent with that of the other concepts in the concept system, thereby allowing the concept in question to be incorporated into the concept system. Otherwise, it should be adapted. § 6.3.5 ¶ 9
    When modelling the concept system and formulating the corresponding system of definitions, it is essential to determine which concepts are so basic and familiar that they need not be defined. Superordinate concepts should be defined before defining their subordinate concepts. When drafting a new definition, the concepts used in the definition should have definitions either in the same terminological resource or in other resources, including general language dictionaries. § 6.3.5 ¶ 10]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from changing the extensions of concepts when adapting existing definitions. CC ID 13417
    [In adapting an existing definition to a specific subject field or context, care should be taken not to change the extension of the concept. A change to the extension leads to a new concept. Similarly, changes to any of the characteristics in a definition result in a new concept. § 6.5.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Cite external dictionary references, if they are used. CC ID 13388
    [A terminology shall include lexical units that are adequately defined in general language dictionaries only when these lexical units are used to designate concepts that form part of the concept system. These dictionaries shall be cited as references for the lexical units. § 6.1 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Avoid errors when citing authoritative sources. CC ID 16238 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Establish and maintain designations for terminological entries, as necessary. CC ID 13340
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Standardize and harmonize term designations. CC ID 13390
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Document the history of designations. CC ID 16249 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Consider the needs of the target audience when creating designations. CC ID 16275 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Craft the designation to reflect the concept system. CC ID 16237 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from changing designations unless absolutely necessary. CC ID 16247 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Separate designations from definitions. CC ID 13328
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Define the concept of a term as the noun with the subject being the term's designation. CC ID 13402
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Treat abbreviations as designations. CC ID 13332
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Indicate that a terminological entry is a preferred term, non-standard term, or deprecated term, as necessary. CC ID 13412
    [{preferred term, admitted term} One primary function of a standardized terminology shall be to indicate preferred, admitted, and deprecated terms. A term recommended by a technical committee shall be considered a preferred term whereas an admitted term shall represent an acceptable synonym for a preferred term. Deprecated terms are terms that have been rejected. § 7.2.6 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Establish and maintain definitions for terminological entries. CC ID 13319 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Limit term definitions to a single concept. CC ID 13395
    [A definition shall describe only one concept. It shall not include hidden definitions of other concepts, e.g. concepts denoting characteristics. Any characteristic that requires an explanation shall be defined separately as a separate concept in a separate entry or given in a note. § 6.3.5 ¶ 12
    A definition shall describe the content of the concept precisely. It should be neither too narrow nor too broad. Otherwise, the definition is considered inaccurate. Non-delimiting or irrelevant characteristics in the definition may result in an extension where objects are unintentionally included or excluded. A definition is considered too broad if the characteristics selected to describe the concept allow for objects that should not be part of the extension. A definition is considered too narrow if the characteristics selected exclude objects that should be part of the extension. The subject field and source indicated in the terminological entry should also be considered when assessing whether a definition is too broad or too narrow. § 6.5.3 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Use definition types that fit the purpose of the term definition. CC ID 13422 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Create intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13381 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Begin adjectival designations of intensional definitions with the state or the function of the object. CC ID 13399
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Begin verbal designations of intensional definitions with a verb. CC ID 13398
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Begin nominal designations of intensional definitions with a noun. CC ID 13397
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include representations in intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13383
    [An intensional definition based on a generic relation shall represent the concept by stating the generic concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristics that differentiate the given concept from coordinate concepts in a generic concept system. By stating the generic concept, the characteristics that make up the intension of the superordinate concept are implicitly assumed in the definition on account of the inheritance principle. An intensional definition may be supplemented by further information or a representation in other media (e.g. graphic illustration or sound clip). § 6.3.5 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include hypernyms, followed by the term's delimiting characteristics in intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13386
    [Intensional definitions shall include the superordinate concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristic(s). The superordinate concept situates the concept in its proper context in the concept system (i.e. ‘mice’ among ‘pointing devices’, ‘trees’ among ‘plants’). In practice, intensional definitions are preferable to other types of definitions and should be used whenever possible as they most clearly reveal the characteristics of a concept within a concept system. § 6.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include the concept, followed by the term's delimiting characteristics, in an intensional definition, as necessary. CC ID 13380
    [An intensional definition based on a generic relation shall represent the concept by stating the generic concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristics that differentiate the given concept from coordinate concepts in a generic concept system. By stating the generic concept, the characteristics that make up the intension of the superordinate concept are implicitly assumed in the definition on account of the inheritance principle. An intensional definition may be supplemented by further information or a representation in other media (e.g. graphic illustration or sound clip). § 6.3.5 ¶ 3
    A definition shall reflect the concept system describing the concept and its relations to other concepts in the concept system. Definitions shall be systemic in order to enable a terminologist to reconstruct the concept system. The characteristics selected in an intensional definition shall indicate the delimitation that distinguishes one concept from another or the connection between the concepts. § 6.3.2 ¶ 1
    The role of an intensional definition is to provide the minimum amount of information that forms the basis for abstraction and that allows one to recognize and differentiate the concept from other related concepts, especially coordinate concepts. An intensional definition shall define the concept as a unit with an unambiguous intension reflected by a unique extension. The unique combination of characteristics creating the intension shall identify the concept and differentiate it from other concepts. § 6.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Create partitive definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13392 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Limit partitive definitions to either the concept's hypernym or hyponym, but not both. CC ID 13416
    [To avoid circularity, defining concepts on the basis of a partitive analysis shall be restricted to one level, either the subordinate level or the superordinate level, not both. § 6.5.2 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Define term definitions as partitive concepts if it constitutes a portion of a comprehensive concept. CC ID 13406
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Begin partitive definitions with formulations that indicate the partitive relationship. CC ID 13405
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Standardize term definitions. CC ID 13391
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Use formulas as definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13333
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3
    A formula used to define a scientific or mathematical quantity can be considered an intensional definition based on a partitive relation whenever the relationship between the parts is indicated § 6.3.5 ¶ 6]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Use proper names as unique identifiers, as necessary. CC ID 16254 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include synonyms and antonyms of the term in the term definition. CC ID 13420 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include the subject field in a term definition if it is not indicated in the term's designation, as necessary. CC ID 13394
    [The extension and the intension reflected in a definition shall be appropriate to the concept system in a given subject field. If the specific subject field is not clearly indicated in the designation, in the document title or is not generally understood, it shall be placed before the definition on the same line. In a terminology database, there is usually a separate field for storing the denomination of the subject field. § 6.3.3 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include examples that contrast the characteristics of a term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13423 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include adjectives that form a part of the term in the term's definition, as necessary. CC ID 13426
    [Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from including hidden definitions not specific to the concept in the term definition. CC ID 13396
    [A definition shall describe only one concept. It shall not include hidden definitions of other concepts, e.g. concepts denoting characteristics. Any characteristic that requires an explanation shall be defined separately as a separate concept in a separate entry or given in a note. § 6.3.5 ¶ 12]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Use plain language when writing term definitions. CC ID 13419 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Begin term definitions with the concept associated with the hypernym, as necessary. CC ID 13408
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from including characteristics to hypernyms that belong to the term's hyponym. CC ID 13415
    [{superordinate concept} The definition shall not contain characteristics that belong logically to superordinate or subordinate concepts. § 6.3.5 ¶ 13]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from describing the designation in the term definition. CC ID 13411
    [An intensional definition shall describe a concept, not the words or elements that make up a designation. § 6.3.5 ¶ 8
    Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3
    Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Define the concept as the noun and the rest of the definition will complete the predicate of the term definition. CC ID 13403
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include additional information not suited to a term's definition in the terminological entry's note. CC ID 13414
    [Ideally, definitions should be as concise as possible and as complex as necessary. Complex definitions shall contain only information that makes the concept unique; any additional descriptive information deemed necessary is to be included in a note. Definitions should be drafted in a consistent manner bearing in mind the target audience's language register and knowledge level. § 6.3.5 ¶ 11]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include the history of the term in the term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13425 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Limit the term's definition to a concept based within the appropriate concept system. CC ID 13407
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include the characteristics that constitute the intension of the concept in the term definition. CC ID 13409
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from using synonyms of the term in its definition. CC ID 13331
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from including meronyms in the term definition. CC ID 16245 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Refrain from repeating a designation to introduce a definition. CC ID 16243 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Combine terms with definitions to form a complete sentence in a term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13401
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Craft the definition to reflect the concept system in which the term is found. CC ID 13384
    [A definition shall reflect the concept system describing the concept and its relations to other concepts in the concept system. Definitions shall be systemic in order to enable a terminologist to reconstruct the concept system. The characteristics selected in an intensional definition shall indicate the delimitation that distinguishes one concept from another or the connection between the concepts. § 6.3.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Include any hypernyms' characteristics that indicate its hierarchical relationship to the concept system in the term definition. CC ID 13410
    [A concept may be defined based on the associative relation established between two concepts. The definition shall state the superordinate concept followed by characteristics that indicate the relationship between the concepts in question. It should be noted that, in many cases, the superordinate concept is not specific to the specialized subject field and, therefore, care should be taken to ensure that the complete intension and extension of the concept have been analysed thoroughly before defining the concept based on an associative relation. § 6.3.5 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Review term definitions before finalizing them. CC ID 13421 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Test the validity of a term definition using the substitution principle. CC ID 13400
    [The substitution principle shall be used to test the validity of a definition. In the case of an intensional definition, it is valid if it can replace a designation in discourse without loss of or change in meaning. § 6.3.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Deprecate flawed terminological entries, as necessary. CC ID 13393
    [Terms are rejected or deprecated for a number of reasons. A term may be a synonym for the preferred term but is deprecated in the interests of monosemy. A term may be flawed or inaccurate. § 7.2.6 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Corrective
  • IT Impact Zone
    2
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE CLASS
    Operational management CC ID 00805 Operational management IT Impact Zone
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style CC ID 06095 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style IT Impact Zone
  • Investigate
    21
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE CLASS
    Analyze Authority Documents for their content. CC ID 13322
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Analyze concepts within the framework of their subject field. CC ID 13373
    [In organizing concepts into a concept system, it is necessary to bear in mind the subject field that gave rise to the concept and to consider the expectations and objectives of the target users. The subject field shall act as the framework within which the concept field, the set of thematically related but unstructured concepts, is established. § 5.5.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Analyze concept fields for their partitive relationships. CC ID 13330
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Analyze concept fields for hierarchical structure. CC ID 13369
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Analyze concept fields for associative relationships. CC ID 13371
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Analyze concept fields for their generic relationships. CC ID 13342
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Use the concept field to develop the concept system. CC ID 13361
    [A concept field is a set of unstructured but thematically related concepts that shall be used as the starting point for developing a concept system. A concept system is an abstract system that the terminologist extracts from the concept field. Many different techniques are used to produce concept diagrams. Modelling techniques, especially object modelling programs, are used to such an extent that it has become conventional to speak of modelling concept systems rather than developing them. § 5.6.3 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Determine which properties of an object should be abstracted into characteristics. CC ID 13363
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Extract objects as concepts. CC ID 13358
    [Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Extract the properties of the object to define the characteristics of the concept. CC ID 13359
    [Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Combine the characteristics of objects to form a concept. CC ID 13365
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts in relation to the concept system found within the subject field. CC ID 13372
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Analyze the similarities and differences of concepts. CC ID 13370
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Determine the position of the hypernym in the hierarchical relationship by means of the inheritance principle. CC ID 13362
    [To identify partitive concepts and their characteristics, it is necessary to determine first the position of the comprehensive concept in a generic hierarchy and to be mindful of the inheritance principle. How generic the comprehensive concept is will determine its partitive concepts and the extension of those concepts. § 5.5.2.3.1 ¶ 3
    An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Determine the hypernym's relationship to partitive concepts, as necessary. CC ID 13404
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Use the relationships between concepts to determine the structure of the concept system. CC ID 13368
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Apply the characteristics of concepts when modelling concept systems. CC ID 13355
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Use the characteristics of the concept to select the designation. CC ID 13357
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Determine the properties of terms that can be abstracted as characteristics. CC ID 13367
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts included in the term's definition. CC ID 13366
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
    Use the characteristics of the concept when formulating a definition. CC ID 13356
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Detective
  • Process or Activity
    3
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE CLASS
    Categorize characteristics according to their importance. CC ID 16229 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Define the criterion of subdivisions in the concept system. CC ID 16230 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
    Treat full forms as designations. CC ID 16236 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Preventive
Common Controls and
mandates by Classification
84 Mandated Controls - bold    
10 Implied Controls - italic     26 Implementation

There are three types of Common Control classifications; corrective, detective, and preventive. Common Controls at the top level have the default assignment of Impact Zone.

Number of Controls
120 Total
  • Corrective
    1
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE TYPE
    Deprecate flawed terminological entries, as necessary. CC ID 13393
    [Terms are rejected or deprecated for a number of reasons. A term may be a synonym for the preferred term but is deprecated in the interests of monosemy. A term may be flawed or inaccurate. § 7.2.6 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
  • Detective
    20
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE TYPE
    Analyze Authority Documents for their content. CC ID 13322
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Analyze concepts within the framework of their subject field. CC ID 13373
    [In organizing concepts into a concept system, it is necessary to bear in mind the subject field that gave rise to the concept and to consider the expectations and objectives of the target users. The subject field shall act as the framework within which the concept field, the set of thematically related but unstructured concepts, is established. § 5.5.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Analyze concept fields for hierarchical structure. CC ID 13369
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Analyze concept fields for associative relationships. CC ID 13371
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Analyze concept fields for their generic relationships. CC ID 13342
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Use the concept field to develop the concept system. CC ID 13361
    [A concept field is a set of unstructured but thematically related concepts that shall be used as the starting point for developing a concept system. A concept system is an abstract system that the terminologist extracts from the concept field. Many different techniques are used to produce concept diagrams. Modelling techniques, especially object modelling programs, are used to such an extent that it has become conventional to speak of modelling concept systems rather than developing them. § 5.6.3 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Determine which properties of an object should be abstracted into characteristics. CC ID 13363
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Extract objects as concepts. CC ID 13358
    [Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Extract the properties of the object to define the characteristics of the concept. CC ID 13359
    [Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Combine the characteristics of objects to form a concept. CC ID 13365
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts in relation to the concept system found within the subject field. CC ID 13372
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Analyze the similarities and differences of concepts. CC ID 13370
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Determine the position of the hypernym in the hierarchical relationship by means of the inheritance principle. CC ID 13362
    [To identify partitive concepts and their characteristics, it is necessary to determine first the position of the comprehensive concept in a generic hierarchy and to be mindful of the inheritance principle. How generic the comprehensive concept is will determine its partitive concepts and the extension of those concepts. § 5.5.2.3.1 ¶ 3
    An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Determine the hypernym's relationship to partitive concepts, as necessary. CC ID 13404
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Use the relationships between concepts to determine the structure of the concept system. CC ID 13368
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Apply the characteristics of concepts when modelling concept systems. CC ID 13355
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Use the characteristics of the concept to select the designation. CC ID 13357
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Determine the properties of terms that can be abstracted as characteristics. CC ID 13367
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts included in the term's definition. CC ID 13366
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Use the characteristics of the concept when formulating a definition. CC ID 13356
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
  • IT Impact Zone
    2
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE TYPE
    Operational management CC ID 00805 Operational management IT Impact Zone
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style CC ID 06095 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style IT Impact Zone
  • Preventive
    97
    KEY:    Primary Verb     Primary Noun     Secondary Verb     Secondary Noun     Limiting Term
    Mandated - bold    Implied - italic    Implementation - regular IMPACT ZONE TYPE
    Document the organization's local environments. CC ID 06726
    [The intensional definition is a concise statement of what the concept is. It states the superordinate concept to concept expressed by the designation and its delimiting characteristics, and it shall be based on the concept relations determined during analysis. § 6.3.5 ¶ 2]
    Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish, implement, and maintain local environment security profiles. CC ID 07037 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include individuals assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07038 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include security requirements in the local environment security profile. CC ID 15717 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include the business processes assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07039 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include the technology used in the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07040 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include contact information for critical personnel assigned to the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07041 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include facility information for the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 07042 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include facility access information for the local environment in the local environment security profile. CC ID 11773 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Disseminate and communicate the local environment security profile to interested personnel and affected parties. CC ID 15716 Operational management Communicate
    Update the local environment security profile, as necessary. CC ID 07043 Operational management Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish, implement, and maintain terminological resources. CC ID 13317 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Compile a list of all of the terms in the subject field. CC ID 13385
    [[compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Analyze concept fields for their partitive relationships. CC ID 13330
    [To model a concept system, the concepts of the concept field have to be examined and compared. In terminology work, at least the following relations shall be used to model a concept system: ⎯ hierarchical relations: ⎯ generic relations; ⎯ partitive relations; ⎯ associative relations. § 5.5.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Investigate
    Select and define the concept field. CC ID 13382
    [[compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish and maintain concept systems, as necessary. CC ID 13320 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Subdivide hypernyms according to criterion of subdivisions in the concept system. CC ID 13374
    [[superordinate concept] In a hierarchical relation, concepts are organized into levels of superordinate  and subordinate concepts . For there to be a hierarchy, there must be at least one subordinate concept below a superordinate concept . Superordinate concepts can be subdivided according to more than one criterion of subdivision (i.e. they can be viewed from more than one dimension), in which case the resulting concept system  is said to be multidimensional. Subordinate concepts at the same level and resulting from the application of the same criterion of subdivision are called coordinate concepts . Concepts are superordinate, subordinate or coordinate, not on their own, but always in relation to each other in a hierarchy. § 5.5.2.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Define objects as anything perceived or conceived. CC ID 13321
    [In terminology work, an object is defined as anything perceived or conceived. Some objects, such as a machine, a diamond, or a river, should be considered concrete or material; others, such as each manifestation of financial planning, gravity, fluidity, or a conversion ratio, should be considered immaterial or abstract; still others, for example, a unicorn, a philosopher's stone or a literary character should be considered purely imaginary. In the course of producing a terminology, philosophical discussions on whether an object actually exists in reality are unproductive and should be avoided. Attention should be focused on how one deals with objects for the purposes of communication. § 4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Identify the properties of each object. CC ID 13325
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1
    Thus, objects in the real world are identified by their properties. The objects are then abstracted as concepts and the properties are abstracted as characteristics making up the concepts. Abstraction is the process of recognizing some set of common features in an individual set of objects and, on that basis, forming a concept of that set of objects. Characteristics are qualifiers and narrow the meaning of a superordinate concept § 5.4.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Identify the properties attributed to objects in the subject field. CC ID 13338
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Assign properties to objects. CC ID 13341
    [In an abstract way, terminological analysis should begin with the objects in question and the subject field contextualizing those objects. Properties shall be ascribed only to objects. A terminologist begins by analysing discourse texts which refer to objects to see how they are designated in language. By analysing a certain number of discourse texts, the terminologist can get an understanding of the properties of the various referents in the different discourse texts, so as to determine those properties that can be abstracted as characteristics, as opposed to those properties that are unique to an individual object and, therefore, cannot be seen as characteristics. § 5.4.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Group objects that share the same properties into categories. CC ID 13326
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish and maintain concepts. CC ID 13339
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Enumerate subordinate concepts, as necessary. CC ID 16242 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Categorize objects into classes of concepts. CC ID 13323
    [In communication, not every individual object in the world is differentiated and named. Instead, through observation and a process of abstraction called conceptualization, objects are categorized into classes, which correspond to units of knowledge called concepts, which are represented in various forms of communication (object → concept → communication). This International Standard does not deal with all concepts represented in language but only with those represented by the terminology of specialized fields. For terminology work, concepts shall be considered mental representations of objects within a specialized context or field. § 5.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Analyze the characteristics of concepts. CC ID 13334
    [Characteristics shall be used in the analysis of concepts, the modelling of concept systems, and in the formulation of definitions and, where appropriate, should have a bearing on the selection and formation of designations. § 5.4.2 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Categorize characteristics according to their importance. CC ID 16229 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Process or Activity
    Consider the expectations and objectives of the target audience when organizing concepts. CC ID 13329
    [In organizing concepts into a concept system, it is necessary to bear in mind the subject field that gave rise to the concept and to consider the expectations and objectives of the target users. The subject field shall act as the framework within which the concept field, the set of thematically related but unstructured concepts, is established. § 5.5.1 ¶ 2
    When providing information about concepts, it is important to take into consideration the needs of the intended audience: a) specialists in the subject field in question, already familiar with the subject field's conceptualization patterns and who may have already encountered the terms; b) specialists in another subject field who may or may not be familiar with the terms and the concepts; or, c) non-specialists unfamiliar with both the terms and the concepts of the subject field. § 6.1 ¶ 5
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Identify the context or subject field of the concept. CC ID 13337
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Identify concepts by their characteristics. CC ID 13324
    [Concepts are described and identified by their characteristics. § 5.1 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Compare the characteristics of related concepts by the intention of the concept. CC ID 13336
    [[adjust, refine] Comparing the characteristics of a concept and its related concepts (i.e. generic, coordinate and specific) may require an adjustment and refinement of the intension. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 6]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Identify the characteristics that constitute the intension of the concept. CC ID 13345
    [After identifying the characteristics that make up the intension of a concept, the terminological analysis shall be taken a step further. Each characteristic of the concept under study shall be analysed in relation to the related concepts in the concept system. Similarities between concepts are indicated by shared characteristics; differences that set a concept apart are signalled by delimiting characteristics (see 5.5.2.2.1, Example 4). A characteristic is delimiting with respect to two concepts if it distinguishes these concepts from each other. The same characteristic of a concept may be delimiting in relation to one related concept but shared with another related concept. Analysing the similarities and differences between concepts will result in identifying the unique set of characteristics that typify a given concept. Specification of this unique combination of characteristics will situate the concept within a network of related concepts with similar or different characteristics. The relations between the concepts shall be used to determine the basic structure of a concept system (see 5.6). The task of defining a concept requires knowledge of the characteristics used to develop the concept system. § 5.4.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    List characteristics that delimit specific concepts from the generic concept. CC ID 13344
    [When documenting characteristics  associated with concepts, instead of listing inherited characteristics  redundantly for subordinate concepts, they shall be listed only with the generic concept. Under the specific concept, it is possible simply to list only the additional characteristic(s ) that delimits the specific concept  from its generic concept  and/or from its fellow coordinate concepts. Inherited characteristics  can be obtained at the level above in the concept system. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Identify partitive concepts. CC ID 13335
    [To identify partitive concepts and their characteristics, it is necessary to determine first the position of the comprehensive concept in a generic hierarchy and to be mindful of the inheritance principle. How generic the comprehensive concept is will determine its partitive concepts and the extension of those concepts. § 5.5.2.3.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Document characteristics associated with concepts. CC ID 13343
    [When documenting characteristics  associated with concepts, instead of listing inherited characteristics  redundantly for subordinate concepts, they shall be listed only with the generic concept. Under the specific concept, it is possible simply to list only the additional characteristic(s ) that delimits the specific concept  from its generic concept  and/or from its fellow coordinate concepts. Inherited characteristics  can be obtained at the level above in the concept system. § 5.5.2.2.1 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Combine the characteristics of objects when creating or updating concepts. CC ID 13327
    [Concept formation plays a pivotal role in organizing human knowledge because it provides the means for recognizing objects and for grouping them into meaningful units in a particular field. In order to categorize an object for the purposes of concept formation, it is necessary to identify its properties. Objects perceived as sharing the same properties are grouped into units. Once similar objects, or occasionally a single object, are viewed as a meaningful unit of knowledge within a branch of human knowledge, the properties of an object, or those common to a set of objects, are abstracted as characteristics that are combined as a set in the formation of a concept. § 5.4.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish and maintain definitions for concepts. CC ID 13360
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Organize concepts into hierarchical relationships. CC ID 13379
    [[superordinate concept] In a hierarchical relation, concepts are organized into levels of superordinate  and subordinate concepts . For there to be a hierarchy, there must be at least one subordinate concept below a superordinate concept . Superordinate concepts can be subdivided according to more than one criterion of subdivision (i.e. they can be viewed from more than one dimension), in which case the resulting concept system  is said to be multidimensional. Subordinate concepts at the same level and resulting from the application of the same criterion of subdivision are called coordinate concepts . Concepts are superordinate, subordinate or coordinate, not on their own, but always in relation to each other in a hierarchy. § 5.5.2.1 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Define the criterion of subdivisions in the concept system. CC ID 16230 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Process or Activity
    Define the hypernym concepts prior to defining the hyponym concepts in a concept system. CC ID 13413
    [When modelling the concept system and formulating the corresponding system of definitions, it is essential to determine which concepts are so basic and familiar that they need not be defined. Superordinate concepts should be defined before defining their subordinate concepts. When drafting a new definition, the concepts used in the definition should have definitions either in the same terminological resource or in other resources, including general language dictionaries. § 6.3.5 ¶ 10]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Illustrate the structure of the concept system, as necessary. CC ID 13364
    [The steps involved in modelling concept systems and defining concepts are closely related. Definitions shall reflect the concept system. If appropriate definitions already exist, the relations within the system should be established primarily by analysing the characteristics of each concept included in its respective definition. Consequently, modelling and illustrating the structure of a concept system, and writing definitions for the concepts treated in that system are reiterative processes that often require review and repetition of some operations. § 5.6.3 ¶ 3
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish and maintain terminological entries and their definitions. CC ID 13318 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Standardize and harmonize terms in terminological entries. CC ID 13389
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include terminological entries that are drawn from existing dictionaries, as necessary. CC ID 13387
    [A terminology shall include lexical units that are adequately defined in general language dictionaries only when these lexical units are used to designate concepts that form part of the concept system. These dictionaries shall be cited as references for the lexical units. § 6.1 ¶ 4
    Before drafting an intensional definition for a given concept, it is necessary to determine the relations between the concept and its related concepts and to model a concept system within which the concept is situated. If a definition already exists, in an International Standard for example, it should be adopted as it stands only if the information in the definition is consistent with that of the other concepts in the concept system, thereby allowing the concept in question to be incorporated into the concept system. Otherwise, it should be adapted. § 6.3.5 ¶ 9
    When modelling the concept system and formulating the corresponding system of definitions, it is essential to determine which concepts are so basic and familiar that they need not be defined. Superordinate concepts should be defined before defining their subordinate concepts. When drafting a new definition, the concepts used in the definition should have definitions either in the same terminological resource or in other resources, including general language dictionaries. § 6.3.5 ¶ 10]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from changing the extensions of concepts when adapting existing definitions. CC ID 13417
    [In adapting an existing definition to a specific subject field or context, care should be taken not to change the extension of the concept. A change to the extension leads to a new concept. Similarly, changes to any of the characteristics in a definition result in a new concept. § 6.5.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Cite external dictionary references, if they are used. CC ID 13388
    [A terminology shall include lexical units that are adequately defined in general language dictionaries only when these lexical units are used to designate concepts that form part of the concept system. These dictionaries shall be cited as references for the lexical units. § 6.1 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Avoid errors when citing authoritative sources. CC ID 16238 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish and maintain designations for terminological entries, as necessary. CC ID 13340
    [The coming together of a unique set of characteristics to make a concept is an everyday occurrence. The concept made up of this set of characteristics is represented by a designation (i.e. a term, appellation or symbol). Since a designation is not attributed to an object but to a concept, the latter depicting one or more objects, terminological analysis is based upon a representation of the concept in the form of a designation or a definition. Therefore, the methodology used in the analysis of terminologies requires: ⎯ identifying the context or subject field; ⎯ identifying the properties attributed to objects in the subject field;⎯ determining those properties which are abstracted into characteristics; ⎯ combining the characteristics to form a concept; ⎯ attributing a designation. § 5.4.2 ¶ 1
    [compile] The modelling of concept systems involves a series of interactive operations leading, for example, to the compilation of a terminological resource in a specific subject field. These operations generally include: ⎯ selecting the concept field, the preliminary designations and concepts to be treated by taking into account the subject field, the user group and its needs; ⎯ analysing the intension and extension of each concept; ⎯ determining the relation and position of these concepts within the concept system; ⎯ illustrating the resulting concept system with the help of a concept diagram; ⎯ formulating and evaluating definitions for the concepts based on the concept relations; ⎯ attributing designations to each concept. § 5.6.3 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Treat full forms as designations. CC ID 16236 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Process or Activity
    Standardize and harmonize term designations. CC ID 13390
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Document the history of designations. CC ID 16249 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Consider the needs of the target audience when creating designations. CC ID 16275 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Craft the designation to reflect the concept system. CC ID 16237 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from changing designations unless absolutely necessary. CC ID 16247 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Separate designations from definitions. CC ID 13328
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Define the concept of a term as the noun with the subject being the term's designation. CC ID 13402
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Treat abbreviations as designations. CC ID 13332
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Indicate that a terminological entry is a preferred term, non-standard term, or deprecated term, as necessary. CC ID 13412
    [{preferred term, admitted term} One primary function of a standardized terminology shall be to indicate preferred, admitted, and deprecated terms. A term recommended by a technical committee shall be considered a preferred term whereas an admitted term shall represent an acceptable synonym for a preferred term. Deprecated terms are terms that have been rejected. § 7.2.6 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Establish and maintain definitions for terminological entries. CC ID 13319 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Limit term definitions to a single concept. CC ID 13395
    [A definition shall describe only one concept. It shall not include hidden definitions of other concepts, e.g. concepts denoting characteristics. Any characteristic that requires an explanation shall be defined separately as a separate concept in a separate entry or given in a note. § 6.3.5 ¶ 12
    A definition shall describe the content of the concept precisely. It should be neither too narrow nor too broad. Otherwise, the definition is considered inaccurate. Non-delimiting or irrelevant characteristics in the definition may result in an extension where objects are unintentionally included or excluded. A definition is considered too broad if the characteristics selected to describe the concept allow for objects that should not be part of the extension. A definition is considered too narrow if the characteristics selected exclude objects that should be part of the extension. The subject field and source indicated in the terminological entry should also be considered when assessing whether a definition is too broad or too narrow. § 6.5.3 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Use definition types that fit the purpose of the term definition. CC ID 13422 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Create intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13381 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Begin adjectival designations of intensional definitions with the state or the function of the object. CC ID 13399
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Begin verbal designations of intensional definitions with a verb. CC ID 13398
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Begin nominal designations of intensional definitions with a noun. CC ID 13397
    [Intensional definitions of concepts which are represented by nominal designations shall begin with a noun and those represented by verbal designations shall begin with a verb. Most intensional definitions of concepts represented by adjectival designations begin with a word or phrase that indicates the state or function of an object, which will often be a gerund or present participle, such as ⎯ being or occurring …; ⎯ of or relating to …; ⎯ having …; or it may begin with an adjective or adjectival phrase. § 6.3.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include representations in intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13383
    [An intensional definition based on a generic relation shall represent the concept by stating the generic concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristics that differentiate the given concept from coordinate concepts in a generic concept system. By stating the generic concept, the characteristics that make up the intension of the superordinate concept are implicitly assumed in the definition on account of the inheritance principle. An intensional definition may be supplemented by further information or a representation in other media (e.g. graphic illustration or sound clip). § 6.3.5 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include hypernyms, followed by the term's delimiting characteristics in intensional definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13386
    [Intensional definitions shall include the superordinate concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristic(s). The superordinate concept situates the concept in its proper context in the concept system (i.e. ‘mice’ among ‘pointing devices’, ‘trees’ among ‘plants’). In practice, intensional definitions are preferable to other types of definitions and should be used whenever possible as they most clearly reveal the characteristics of a concept within a concept system. § 6.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include the concept, followed by the term's delimiting characteristics, in an intensional definition, as necessary. CC ID 13380
    [An intensional definition based on a generic relation shall represent the concept by stating the generic concept immediately above, followed by the delimiting characteristics that differentiate the given concept from coordinate concepts in a generic concept system. By stating the generic concept, the characteristics that make up the intension of the superordinate concept are implicitly assumed in the definition on account of the inheritance principle. An intensional definition may be supplemented by further information or a representation in other media (e.g. graphic illustration or sound clip). § 6.3.5 ¶ 3
    A definition shall reflect the concept system describing the concept and its relations to other concepts in the concept system. Definitions shall be systemic in order to enable a terminologist to reconstruct the concept system. The characteristics selected in an intensional definition shall indicate the delimitation that distinguishes one concept from another or the connection between the concepts. § 6.3.2 ¶ 1
    The role of an intensional definition is to provide the minimum amount of information that forms the basis for abstraction and that allows one to recognize and differentiate the concept from other related concepts, especially coordinate concepts. An intensional definition shall define the concept as a unit with an unambiguous intension reflected by a unique extension. The unique combination of characteristics creating the intension shall identify the concept and differentiate it from other concepts. § 6.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Create partitive definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13392 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Limit partitive definitions to either the concept's hypernym or hyponym, but not both. CC ID 13416
    [To avoid circularity, defining concepts on the basis of a partitive analysis shall be restricted to one level, either the subordinate level or the superordinate level, not both. § 6.5.2 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Define term definitions as partitive concepts if it constitutes a portion of a comprehensive concept. CC ID 13406
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Begin partitive definitions with formulations that indicate the partitive relationship. CC ID 13405
    [An intensional definition based on a partitive relation shall describe a concept as a part of a particular whole or comprehensive concept. It is therefore necessary to analyse the comprehensive concept first to determine its position in a concept system and to indicate its relation to the partitive concepts. Partitive definitions typically begin with formulations that clearly indicate the partitive relation such as: part of, component of, section of, period of, element in, ingredients making up, etc., followed by the comprehensive concept and the delimiting characteristics. A concept shall be defined as a partitive concept only if it constitutes a distinct part of the comprehensive concept. It should be defined as a part of the most generic concept of which it is a part. § 6.3.5 ¶ 4]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Standardize term definitions. CC ID 13391
    [In the case of terminology work carried out in standardization, not only are the term and other designations standardized (with one term specified as a preferred term, where applicable) but so is the definition. In scientific, mathematical, and technical documentation, the definition may be complemented with a graphic illustration. The definition may also be expressed by or complemented by a formula. § 6.1 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Use formulas as definitions, as necessary. CC ID 13333
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3
    A formula used to define a scientific or mathematical quantity can be considered an intensional definition based on a partitive relation whenever the relationship between the parts is indicated § 6.3.5 ¶ 6]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Use proper names as unique identifiers, as necessary. CC ID 16254 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include synonyms and antonyms of the term in the term definition. CC ID 13420 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include the subject field in a term definition if it is not indicated in the term's designation, as necessary. CC ID 13394
    [The extension and the intension reflected in a definition shall be appropriate to the concept system in a given subject field. If the specific subject field is not clearly indicated in the designation, in the document title or is not generally understood, it shall be placed before the definition on the same line. In a terminology database, there is usually a separate field for storing the denomination of the subject field. § 6.3.3 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include examples that contrast the characteristics of a term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13423 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include adjectives that form a part of the term in the term's definition, as necessary. CC ID 13426
    [Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from including hidden definitions not specific to the concept in the term definition. CC ID 13396
    [A definition shall describe only one concept. It shall not include hidden definitions of other concepts, e.g. concepts denoting characteristics. Any characteristic that requires an explanation shall be defined separately as a separate concept in a separate entry or given in a note. § 6.3.5 ¶ 12]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Use plain language when writing term definitions. CC ID 13419 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Begin term definitions with the concept associated with the hypernym, as necessary. CC ID 13408
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from including characteristics to hypernyms that belong to the term's hyponym. CC ID 13415
    [{superordinate concept} The definition shall not contain characteristics that belong logically to superordinate or subordinate concepts. § 6.3.5 ¶ 13]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from describing the designation in the term definition. CC ID 13411
    [An intensional definition shall describe a concept, not the words or elements that make up a designation. § 6.3.5 ¶ 8
    Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3
    Circularity within a definition occurs when the designation is repeated to introduce the definition or when an element of the designation is used as a characteristic. When formulating a definition, it is not permissible to repeat the designation to introduce the definition. The use of an element of the designation as a characteristic in the definition should be avoided as far as possible. However, if deemed necessary, an adjective which forms part of the term may be used in the definition, provided it is clearly defined elsewhere. § 6.5.2 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Define the concept as the noun and the rest of the definition will complete the predicate of the term definition. CC ID 13403
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include additional information not suited to a term's definition in the terminological entry's note. CC ID 13414
    [Ideally, definitions should be as concise as possible and as complex as necessary. Complex definitions shall contain only information that makes the concept unique; any additional descriptive information deemed necessary is to be included in a note. Definitions should be drafted in a consistent manner bearing in mind the target audience's language register and knowledge level. § 6.3.5 ¶ 11]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include the history of the term in the term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13425 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Limit the term's definition to a concept based within the appropriate concept system. CC ID 13407
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include the characteristics that constitute the intension of the concept in the term definition. CC ID 13409
    [A comprehensive concept may be defined based on a mixed concept system. The definition shall begin by stating the superordinate generic concept associated with the comprehensive concept being defined, followed by a listing of the delimiting parts corresponding to the characteristics that make up the comprehensive concept. Optional parts shall not be included. Optional parts frequently associated with a concept may be mentioned in a note. This type of definition is practical only if the number of parts to be enumerated is limited. § 6.3.5 ¶ 5]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from using synonyms of the term in its definition. CC ID 13331
    [Some terms are so long and complex that they could almost serve as definitions because the detailed components making up the term represent the characteristics. Some definitions are so short they could almost be thought of as terms. Despite this, the definition should not be confused with the designation in a terminological resource, and synonyms should never be used in place of a definition in the way they often are in general language dictionaries. Although some terminological resources list abbreviated forms as terms and provide the full form in the place of the definition, this is not appropriate terminological practice. Both the full form and the abbreviation are designations and should be treated as terms in a terminological entry. The same consideration holds true for equivalents in other languages. In technical resources, formulae may be used as definitions. § 6.1 ¶ 3]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from including meronyms in the term definition. CC ID 16245 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Refrain from repeating a designation to introduce a definition. CC ID 16243 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Combine terms with definitions to form a complete sentence in a term definition, as necessary. CC ID 13401
    [According to standard terminological practice, a definition is a statement that does not form a complete sentence. It must be combined with an entry term (designating the concept being defined) placed at the beginning of the entry in order to be read as a sentence: when the concept being defined is designated by a noun, the subject is the designation, the copula (which identifies the predicate with the subject) is understood to be the verb “be” and the definition completes the predicate (the wording which expresses something about the subject). Generally, the entry term is followed by some sort of separator, such as a punctuation mark or line break. The definition begins with a predicate noun stating the broader generic (superordinate) concept associated with the concept being defined, together with delimiters indicating the characteristics that delimit the concept being defined from coordinate concepts. An article (generally indefinite) is implied but not written at the beginning of a definition. The subject field may be indicated in angle brackets at the beginning of the definition. § 6.3.2 ¶ 2]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Craft the definition to reflect the concept system in which the term is found. CC ID 13384
    [A definition shall reflect the concept system describing the concept and its relations to other concepts in the concept system. Definitions shall be systemic in order to enable a terminologist to reconstruct the concept system. The characteristics selected in an intensional definition shall indicate the delimitation that distinguishes one concept from another or the connection between the concepts. § 6.3.2 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Include any hypernyms' characteristics that indicate its hierarchical relationship to the concept system in the term definition. CC ID 13410
    [A concept may be defined based on the associative relation established between two concepts. The definition shall state the superordinate concept followed by characteristics that indicate the relationship between the concepts in question. It should be noted that, in many cases, the superordinate concept is not specific to the specialized subject field and, therefore, care should be taken to ensure that the complete intension and extension of the concept have been analysed thoroughly before defining the concept based on an associative relation. § 6.3.5 ¶ 7]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Review term definitions before finalizing them. CC ID 13421 Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation
    Test the validity of a term definition using the substitution principle. CC ID 13400
    [The substitution principle shall be used to test the validity of a definition. In the case of an intensional definition, it is valid if it can replace a designation in discourse without loss of or change in meaning. § 6.3.4 ¶ 1]
    Harmonization Methods and Manual of Style Establish/Maintain Documentation